Refractive unit

Refractive unit

This clinic deals with the disease called Glaucoma which is a group of diseases that can damage the eye’s optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. The damage occurs when the normal fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises inside the eye and damages the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting images to the brain. If the elevated eye pressure continues, glaucoma will worsen one’s vision. Without treatment, it can cause blindness within a few years.

Its important to get a regular check up with measuring your eye pressure especially when you are :

  • African over age 40
  • Anyone over age 65
  • People with a family history of glaucoma
  • Individuals who have experienced a serious eye injury
  • People with diabetes (yearly exams are recommended)

Childhood Glaucoma

Many people are unaware that babies and children can develop glaucoma. While relatively rare, it is a leading cause of blindness in children especially in the developing world, it is even unfortunatly a more complex chronic condition than that occurs in adults. It often requires multiple procedures and examinations, and careful lifelong follow-up is essential. With early detection and prompt effective treatment, these children can maximize their potential and sometimes achieve near normal vision in at least in one eye.

Glaucoma Symptoms

At first, there are no symptoms. Vision stays normal, and there is no pain. However, as the disease progresses, a person with glaucoma may notice his or her side vision gradually failing. That is, objects in front may still be seen clearly, but objects to the side may be missed.

As the disease progresses, any of the following symptoms may appear:

  • Loss of peripheral vision
    • Difficulty focusing on objects
    • Presence of haloes around lights
    • Blurred vision

As glaucoma remains untreated, people may miss objects to the side and out of the corner of their eye. Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral (side) vision. It is as if they were looking through a tunnel. Over time, straight-ahead vision may decrease until no vision remains.

Diagnosis

Glaucoma tests are painless and take very little time. A dilated eye exam is used to assess the patient’s vision and optic nerve; a procedure called tonometry measures eye pressure and visual field testing may be included to check peripheral vision , also OCT optic nerve is a helpful investigative tool now a day

Treatment

Patients need to talk with their ophthalmologist to determine which treatment option is best for their particular case. Treatment modalities may include prescription eye drops, laser or microsurgery

Eye drops 
either reduce the formation of fluid in the front of the eye or increase its outflow. There may be side effects to the drops, so patients need to completely discuss other medical conditions or  prescriptions with the ophthalmologist.

Laser surgery 
for glaucoma slightly increases the outflow of the fluid from the eye in open-angle glaucoma or eliminates fluid blockage in angle-closure glaucoma.

Types of laser surgery for glaucoma include:

-Trabeculoplasty, in which a laser is used to pull open the trabecular meshwork drainage area
-Iridotomy, in which a tiny hole is made in the iris, allowing the fluid to flow more freely
-Cyclophotocoagulation, in which a laser beam treats areas of the ciliary body, reducing the production of fluid.

Microsurgery
new channel is created to drain the fluid thereby reducing intraocular pressure.

 

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